Specialisation of cells

Ciliated Cell


Adaptation: It has a layer of tiny hair called “Cilia” which can move and push mucus from one place to another. The “Mucus” can transport trapped dust and microbes when it is pushed by the cilia.

Root Hair Cells

Adaptation: Plant roots have root hair cells for absorbing water and mineral salts.

Xylem Vessels


Adaptation: Transports water and supports the plant. The cell has no cytoplasm (so water can pass freely), no end wall (so that many cells can form a continuous tube) and walls strengthend with a waterproof substance called lignin.

Palisade Mesophyll Cells

Adaptation: Some plants have palisade mesophyll cells that contains chloroplasts to produce photosynthesis.

Nerve Cells

Adaptation: Animals have nerve cells to transmit information in the form of electrical impulses.

Red Blood Cells

Adaptation: Transports oxygen from the lungs to the tissues where aerobic respiration occurs. The cytoplasm is filled with the pigment haemoglobin, which carries oxygen. The cells have no nucleus, leaving more space for haemoglobin, and they are very flexible (They can be forced through even the narrowest of blood vessels).

Sperm and Egg Cells


In testes are sperms cells and in the ovaries are egg cells that contains the genetic material to trasnmit genetic information from the parents to the

The sperm has a tail which produces swimming movements to go to the egg cell.

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